View Nicolas Poussin’s 604 artworks on artnet. Corrections? Nicolas Poussin was born near the town in Les Andelys in Normandy in 1594. Actif aussi en Italie à partir de 1624. Aged 17, Poussin left Normandy for bigger and better things, namely the bustling metropolis of Paris. Nicolas Poussin, 17th century classical painter, • 1594 : Born near Les Andelys (Normandy, France) A short biography of Nicolas Poussin : key dates • 1594 : Born near Les Andelys (Normandy, France) • 1624 : Arrives in Rome, 1st significant order for Saint-Pierre. He is charged with creating two altarpieces, painting two large allegoric canvases for Richelieu and decorating the Grande Galerie of the Louvre Palace, even though he has become used to small canvases. • 1642 : Returns to Rome (he does not leave the city again) About 1622 Poussin executed six large tempera paintings for the Jesuits (none of those survive), and in the following year he received a commission for a painting in a Notre-Dame chapel. Juni 1594 in Les Andelys, Normandie; † 19. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), one of the greatest French painters, rationally synthesized the diverse tendencies of French and Italian art. L’art de Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) est réputé difficile et réservé aux seuls initiés. A French classical painter, Nicolas Poussin has been an inspiration for countless number of great artists since the 17th century. Biography; Nicolas Poussin Nicolas Poussin. Nicolas Poussin naît en 1594 en Normandie. Vie et oeuvre du peintre Nicolas Poussin. Choosing subjects which allow him to stage large historic scenes, notably from the Old Testament, he balances his compositions more, i.e. He spent virtually all of his working life in Rome, where he specialized in history paintings—depicting scenes from the Bible, ancient history, and mythology—that are notable for their narrative clarity and dramatic force. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Discovers painting when Quentin Varin comes to Les Andelys to complete a series of altarpieces for the church. His earliest works are characterized by a sensuality and colouristic richness indebted to Venetian art, especially to Titian, but by 1633 Poussin had repudiated this overtly seductive style in favour of a more rational and disciplined manner that owed much to the Classicism of Raphael and antiquity. The Landscape with Diana and Orion is an allegory on the origin of clouds. Above all the painter finds his inspiration in poetic subjects > The Inspiration of the Poet Omissions? Sa mère est Marie de Laisement (née vers 1560), la fille d'un échevin de la ville et jeune veuve quand elle se marie à Jean en 1592. Vénus et Mercure (1626-27). Here we find the application of his theory of modes: the painting deals with human actions and has to present them in harmony with reason, in a logical and orderly manner, addressing the spirit, not the eye, with each subject demanding its own specific treatment. He creates a new genre, the “ideal landscape”, recomposed in the studio, where we find the idea of an intimate liaison between nature and man, put in its place at the centre of a majestic setting – a derivative of his neo-stoicism. « Cette toile est le plus grand des deux fragments d'une peinture de Poussin. The works for the Jesuits brought him to the attention of the Italian poet Giambattista Marino, who commissioned a series of drawings based on Ovidian mythology and encouraged Poussin to visit Italy. Many of these works depict the Holy Family, a purely contemplative theme ideally suited to the serenity of his art during that phase. At the end of the 1640s, the landscape becomes the indifferent location of the ephemeral destiny of man (The Funeral of Phocion), rigorously constructed upon an intellectual mode, in opposition with the misfortunes of human destinies. With Moses saved from the Water, painted in 1651, Poussin succeeds in translating the commotion of the women discovering the child through the contrast of the drapery. One year later, Pozzo assisted him in securing the commission for The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus, an altarpiece for St. Peter’s. Dies in Rome, leaving just over 200 paintings (known of at present), a quarter of which are kept in France, primarily at the Louvre Museum, and some 450 drawings, which are mainly to be found at the Louvre Museum and at Windsor Castle. MAIN A-Z INDEX - A-Z of ARTISTS. His first years there were marked by hardship and misfortune. Nicolas Poussin was born in the town of Les Andelys in Normandy in June, 1594. Il est le fils de Jean Poussin (né vers 1555-1560), né d'une petite famille noble de Soissons et arrivé en Normandie après la prise de Vernon en 1590 pendant les guerres de religion. His clientele changes; from this point on, he seems to depend on a circle of experts, including Commendatore Cassiano dal Pozzo who is collecting documents illustrating life in ancient Rome and calls on artists to draw various accounts of imperial Rome: classical sculpture, ancient architecture. Poussin turns towards classic allegory and paints the first series of the Seven Sacraments for Cassiano dal Pozzo, which portrays the liturgy of the first Christians and in which the style of this first period in Rome finds completion. A period when, with access to the royal library, he studies the engraved prints of Raphael and Giulio Romano, statuary and antique patterns and the décor of the Second School of Fontainebleau, drawing on stylistic elements. He seeks the concentration of effects rather than their richness by limiting vocabulary as much as possible. POUSSIN, NICOLAS (1594 – 1665), French painter. Until the discovery of The Death of the Virgin, the so-called “Marino drawings” were the only certain works to survive from his pre-Roman years. During this time, he meets his first patron, Italian Giambattista Marino, known in France as the “Cavalier Marin”, poet to Marie de Medici, who commissions him to do a suite of drawings illustrating Ovid’s Metamorphoses. En témoigne l’immense littérature qui lui a été consacrée depuis le 17e siècle., The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, Art Encyclopedia - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, National Gallery of Art - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, Nicolas Poussin - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Nicolas Poussin Biography Nicolas Poussin, the greatest French artist of the 17th century, is considered one of the founders of European classicism, a movement in art, based on antique and Renaissance heritage. Nicolas Poussin was a famous French painter and draftsman who became a central figure of the Roman and European art in the seventeenth century. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Deciding to concentrate instead on easel pictures of increasing subtlety and refinement, Poussin devoted much of his art of the late 1620s to romantic mythologies inspired by Titian and his fellow Venetians. See available paintings, works on paper, and prints and multiples for sale and learn about the artist. Following a serious illness, he marries Anna Maria Dughet, the daughter of a French chef who cared for him, whose brother, Gaspard Dughet, later becomes his pupil. Histoire France, Patrimoine. Biography Charles de la Vallée Poussin's father was the professor of mineralogy and geology at the University of Louvain for around 40 years. The result does not necessarily convince everyone, but he succeeds in forming a real circle of admirers who are faithful clients and follow him for what remains of his life. Biography of Nicolas Poussin. Poussin’s artistic mastery is really revealed in The Empire of Flora, a complex composition painted 1631. In the spring of 1624 Poussin arrived in Rome, where—except for a stay in Paris during 1640–42—he was to remain for the rest of his life. Author of. Peintre d'histoire, compositions religieuses, mythologiques, à personnages, ou encore de paysages animés. The composition is stripped back, constructed using horizontals and verticals only. Depuis 1624, actif aussi en Italie. Nicolas Poussin was born near the town in Les Andelys in Normandy in 1594. Determining the exact chronology of his works during these years is highly problematic. The French Baroquepainter Quentin Varin came across his work whilst passing through Poussin's town and encouraged him to go into p… Another early friend and biographer, André Félibien, reported that "He was busy without cease filling his sketchbooks with an infinite number of different figures which only his imagination could produce." However, an increasing level of skill in draftsmanship and use of colour in the large number of paintings datable to this period have led to a general consensus among scholars of the progression of his art between 1624 and 1627. During this period he was introduced to engravings after the masters of the Italian Renaissance; this work inspired in him such enthusiasm that he made two attempts to visit Rome, both abortive, between 1619 and 1622. in a more rigorous manner: The Adoration of the Magi, The Adoration of the Golden Calf or The Crossing of the Red Sea. Nicolas Poussin : biographie, actualités et … Biographies, portraits, vie et oeuvre des personnages célèbres ou méconnus de France. His father served in a senior position under Karl IX and Henry of Navarra. Most were never finished, but experimented with different variants of the same theme. In these paintings, nature takes on a new character: it is no longer orderly and subject to the laws of reason but wild, invading the painting where man occupies an increasingly negligible space. The calmness is accentuated to the extreme; the expression of faces is reduced to a minimum. Born near Les Andelys (Normandy, France). 1665 (November) Soon after his arrival, his early champion, Marino, moved from Rome to Naples, where he died in 1625. We do not know much about Poussin up until his thirties. Nicolas Poussin was born near Les Andelys in Normandy where he began his study of art. 1637 The featured people are reduced to simple geometric forms. Destitute, Poussin executed a large number of biblical and mythological paintings in the hope of finding buyers. Detail from, The Great Bacchanal With Woman Playing A … Ses compositions ont influencé après sa mort de nombreux peintres ; mais aussi certains courants du XXe siècle comme le cubisme. Nicolas Poussin - retrouvez toute l'actualité, nos dossiers et nos émissions sur France Culture, le site de la chaîne des savoirs et de la création. He works at his own pace for this small base of clients, taking time to prepare each of his compositions meticulously. Having worked pretty much all of his life in Rome, Poussin is renowned for his paintings that depicted mythology and ancient history. Towards 1645, the painter begins to take an interest in landscapes, preserving the mathematical order of The Holy Family on the Steps and applying it to nature, with the whole thing being artfully organised thanks to buildings that geographically organise the space. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. He tries, and fails, to go to Rome on two occasions, then returns to Paris where he meets Philippe de Champaigne and works with him for the Queen Mother at the Luxembourg Palace. The original family name was Lavallée, a name of French origin. His work is a salient example of lucid control by the mind over the senses. Il suit des études probablement dans une école élémentaire puis dans un c… Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Biographie de Nicolas Poussin. Le nom de Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665) est associé au classicisme français et au règne de Louis XIII, bien que l’artiste ait passé la majeure partie de sa carrière à Rome. 1594 (June) Many of these works are poetic mythologies on themes of unrequited love, which are pervaded by an air of languor and melancholy. • 1630-1640 : 1st period in Rome. He was schooled in many subjects, including Latin and letters, but showed a talent for drawing (he was apparently scolded by his teachers for doodling in his books). He does not leave the Eternal City again. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665): Biography of Classical Baroque Painter, Noted for Allegorical Paintings like Rape of the Sabine Women (Louvre) Nicolas Poussin Biography of French Classical Baroque Painter. Dictionnaire biographique des célébrités et personnages historiques. Inspired by comparable compositions on ancient sarcophagi, this is the first heroic deathbed scene in the artist’s career—and in the entire history of painting—and it spawned countless later imitations. Biographie, portrait pour connaître la vie, naissance et mort d'un personnage historique, de notre histoire, célèbre ou méconnu. Nicolas Poussin, né au hameau de Villers, commune des Andelys, le 15 juin 1594, décédé à Rome le 19 novembre 1665, est un peintre français du XVIIe siècle, représentant majeur du classicisme pictural. 1633 Main source (see bibliography): Poussin seeks to translate the emotions of different people through their gestures and facial expressions: the viewer should be able to feel what is felt by each actor and to decipher their role in history (The rape of the Sabine Women, The Israelites Gathering the Manna in the Desert). Arrives in Rome, after having spent several months in Venice. The artist executed the majority of his canvases in this intensely idealized style. Nicolas Poussin - Nicolas Poussin - The final years: Poussin continued to paint three or four pictures a year in the 1650s, despite being increasingly ill. 1630 After a period of real poverty, he receives several significant orders, including an altarpiece for Saint-Pierre: The Martyrdom of Saint Erasmus, a large-scale work which is not very well received. Nicolas Poussin naît en juin 1594 au hameau de Villers dans l'actuelle commune des Andelys. Serenity and simplicity are found in his figured scenes, eliminating almost all picturesque detail. Nicolas Poussin, (born June 1594, Les Andelys, Normandy [France]—died November 19, 1665, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), French painter and draftsman who … 1640 The Notre-Dame painting, The Death of the Virgin (1623), went missing following the French Revolution and was known until the 21st century only by a preparatory drawing. 1612 Nicolas Poussin’s early biographer was his friend Giovanni Pietro Bellori, who relates that Poussin was born near Les Andelys in Normandy and that he received an education that included some Latin, which would stand him in good stead. The period that follows is the most fruitful of his career, resulting in the most perfect expressions of French classicism. Around 1633-1634, his reputation reaches Paris and his paintings are sent by Barberini to Cardinal Richelieu. November 1665 in Rom) war ein französischer Maler des klassizistischen Barocks. Returns to Paris in December, under pressure from Sublet de Noyers and, indirectly, Louis XIII and Richelieu. He was schooled in many subjects, including Latin and letters, but showed a talent for drawing (he was apparently scolded by his teachers for doodling in his books). Required fields are marked *. Your email address will not be published. Biographie courte de Nicolas Poussin - Nicolas Poussin est un peintre français du XVIIe siècle, grande figure du classicisme. Sometimes painting traditional religious subjects such as The Massacre of the Innocents, above all he finds his inspiration in poetic subjects, acquiring, for example, an original and very classical style in the painting held at the Louvre Museum, The Inspiration of the Poet, and in tragic subjects like Tancred and Erminia. About 1612 Poussin departed for Paris, where he studied anatomy, perspective, and architecture and worked with the minor masters Georges Lallemand and Ferdinand Elle. Poussin was born in Normandy, in Les-Andelys, in 1594. Une image plus petite avec putto musicien se trouvait probablement à gauche de ce fragme… Her brother, Gaspard Dughet, eventually became one of the foremost landscape painters of 17th-century Rome and took the surname Poussin from his more-illustrious brother-in-law. Born in or near the town of Les Andelys in Normandy, Poussin received an education in Latin and letters, but early on he showed an inclination for drawing. 1594, Les Andelys, d. 1665, Roma) in the Web Gallery of Art, a searchable image collection and database of European painting, sculpture and architecture (200-1900) The misfortunes of god are once again opposed with the eternal grandeur of nature, which works alone to provide the formal structure of the painting. Huile sur toile, 80 × 87,5 cm, Dulwich Picture Gallery, Londres. Nicolas Poussin, (born June 1594, Les Andelys, Normandy [France]—died November 19, 1665, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), French painter and draftsman who founded the French Classical tradition. POUSSIN, NICOLAS (1594 – 1665). • 1642-1650 : The most fruitful period of his career, creating the most perfect expressions of French classicism, where he seeks the concentration of effects rather than their richness by limiting vocabulary as much as possible > 2d version of The Arcadian Shepherds, 2d set of Seven Sacraments, Eliezer and Rebecca… • 1665 : Dies in Rome. In terms of religious themes, he now prefers the New Testament and the fundamental subjects of the Gospels – the Holy Family, the crucifixion, the burial – and works with variations surrounding the victory of will on the passions of stoic Roman historians.